In 1995, Bartley and Gorman
proposed diagnostic criteria for Graves' ophthalmopathy as eyelid retraction
with objective thyroid dysfunction, or either eyelid retraction or objective
thyroid dysfunction in association with exophthalmos, optic neuropathy, or
extraocular muscle involvement.
FPG >126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l). Fasting is
defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h.*
Symptoms of hyperglycemia and a casual (random) plasma
glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l). Casual (random) is defined as any time
of day without regard to time since last meal. The classic symptoms of
hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, and unexplained weight loss.
2-h plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l)
during an OGTT. The test should be performed as described by the World
Health Organization using a glucose load containing the equivalent of 75-g
anhydrous glucose dissolved in water.*
üAdults with type
1 diabetes should have an initial dilated and comprehensive eye examination
by an ophthalmologist or optometrist within five years after the onset of diabetes (AAO and ADA).
üPatients with type 2 diabetes should have an initial and comprehensive eye
examination by anophthalmologist or
optometrist at the time of diagnosis
of diabetes (AAO and ADA).
— Subsequent examinations for type
one and type two patients should be repeated annually by an ophthalmologist or optometrist who is knowledgeable
and experienced in diagnosing the presence of diabetic retinopathy and is aware
of its management.
Less frequent exams (every 2–3 years) may be considered with
the advice of an eye care professional in the setting of a normal eye exam.
Examinations will be required more frequently if retinopathy is progressing
üWhen planning pregnancy, women with preexisting diabetes should have a
comprehensive eye examination and should be counseled on the risk of
development and/or progression of diabetic retinopathy. Women with diabetes who
become pregnant should have a comprehensive eye examination in the first trimester and close followup
throughout pregnancy and for one-year postpartum.
standard fields of 30° were described as the
Arlie House Classification and were used on the Diabetic Retinopathy Study
Protocol. This was slightly modified for the ETDRS to the Modified 7- standard
field protocol-35° and became the
standard protocol in fundus photography for diabetic retinopathy
This is a technique of taking a
series of photos, using the stereoscopic setting on the digital fundus camera.
All of these fields utilize a 35-degree field of view.
Field 1 is centered on the optic
Field 2 is centered on the macula;
Field 3 temporal to the macula;
Field 4 superotemporally,
excluding the optic disc;
Field 5 inferotemporally,
excluding the optic disc;
Field 6 superonasally along the
arcades, excluding the optic disc; and