Inside Retinal Layers

The nuclei of the Müller cells lie in the inner nuclear layer, whereas the nuclei of the photoreceptors lie in the outer nuclear layer.

·         The nerve fiber layer contains the axons of the ganglion cells.

·         The inner plexiform layer has axons of the bipolar and amacrine cells and the synapses of the ganglion cells.

·         The outer plexiform layer has connections between the photoreceptors, horizontal cells, and bipolar cells.

·         The footplates of the Müller cells form the internal limiting membrane.

·         cell bodies whose processes project into the lateral geniculate and pretectal nuclei àganglion cell layer

·         Müller's cell nuclei à inner nuclear layer

·         Photoreceptors nuclei à Outer nuclear layer

·         horizontal and bipolar synapses à outer plexiform layer

·         amacrine and bipolar cell synapses à inner plexiform layer

·         storage of dietary vitamin A à retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)

·         cell bodies whose processes form spherules and pedicles à outer nuclear layer

·         high baseline cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels and membrane depolarization à photoreceptor layer

·         flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages à nerve fiber layer

·         dot hemorrhages à inner nuclear layer

·         Hard exudates à OPL

·         Soft exudates/ CWS à NFL

- compiled & published by Dr Dhaval Patel MD AIIMS