Glaucoma is an degenerative disease of the nerve of an eye that can cause vision loss or blindness. With glaucoma, fluid pressure builds up in the eye, which puts pressure on the nerve of the eye. This pressure damages the optic nerve and causes vision loss. Peripheral or Side vision is affected first, followed by central vision loss.
There are two main types of glaucoma:
You are at risk for developing glaucoma if you:
Majority of time, Glaucoma may have no signs until there is vision loss. Other signs you may have:
Your eye doctor may do some tests as follow:
Our normal IOP (Intraocular Pressure) is in range of 10-21 mmHg. In many types of glaucoma, IOP is more than 21 mmHg.
In glaucoma, Optic nerve's Neuroretinal Rim (NRR) is thinner than normal. Also Cup-disc Ration (CDR) is increased.
Glaucoma affects peripheral visual field first then followed by central field. This is detected by Visual Field Tests.
Glaucoma cannot be cured and damage cannot be reversed. But with treatment, eye pressure can be decreased and further vision loss can be prevented. Eye drops are the most common early treatment for glaucoma. Other treatments may include oral medicines, laser treatment or surgery. When you have glaucoma, it must be treated for the rest of your life.
There is no proven way to prevent glaucoma. We can just control EYE PRESSURE by eye drops. If increased eye pressure is detected and treated early, it can decrease loss of vision and prevent blindness.
These all details in just for basic information about the diseases. Please consult your doctor before following this by yourself. --- Dr Dhaval Patel (MD, AIIMS Delhi)
- compiled & published by Dr Dhaval Patel MD AIIMS
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